When the Tollund Man was found in a bathroom in Denmark 71 years in the past, he was so properly preserved that his finders thought he was the sufferer of a latest homicide.
It took archaeologists to disclose he had been thrown into the bathroom nearly 2,400 years in the past, and that he’d first been hanged — a noose of plaited animal cover was nonetheless round his neck. The cautious association of the physique and face — his closed eyes and faint smile — instructed he might have been killed as a human sacrifice, fairly than executed as a legal.
The suggestion that the Tollund Man was killed as a human sacrifice has now been bolstered by a examine of the condemned man’s frugal final meal, constructed from an in depth investigation of the contents of his digestive tract: A porridge of barley, flax and pale persicaria.
The seeds of pale persicaria are the clue to this Iron Age homicide thriller, stated archaeologist Nina Nielsen, the top of analysis at Denmark’s Silkeborg Museum and the lead writer of the study published Tuesday.
The plant grows wild amongst barley crops, however proof from Iron Age grain storage reveals it was normally cleaned out as a weed throughout threshing. That means it was a part of “threshing waste” that was added to the porridge intentionally — maybe as a part of a ritual meal for these condemned to die by human sacrifice.
“Was it simply an strange meal? Or was threshing waste one thing you solely included when individuals had been consuming a ritual meal?” Nielsen stated. “We don’t know that.”
The contents of the Tollund Man’s preserved intestines had been examined quickly after he was discovered. However the brand new examine refines that preliminary examination with a lot improved archaeological strategies and devices.
“Again in 1950, they solely seemed on the properly preserved grains and seeds, and never the very wonderful fraction of the fabric,” Nielsen stated. “However now we’ve higher microscopes, higher methods of analyzing the fabric and new strategies. In order that implies that we might get extra info out of it.”
In addition to revealing the clue of the threshing waste added to his final meal, the researchers discovered it was in all probability cooked in a clay pot — items of overcooked crust could be seen within the traces — and that he’d additionally eaten fish. In addition they discovered he was affected by a number of parasitic infections when he died, together with tapeworms — in all probability from an everyday food regimen of undercooked meat and contaminated water, Nielsen stated.
The Tollund Man is considered one of dozens of bathroom our bodies from the Iron Age between about 2,500 and 1,500 years in the past which were discovered all through Northern Europe. They had been mummified within the bogs by the low oxygen ranges, low temperatures and water turned acidic by the layers of decaying vegetation, or peat, which can be discovered there.
A couple of appear to have been the victims of accidents, probably individuals who drowned after falling into the water. However most, just like the Tollund Man, had been killed and positioned within the bogs intentionally, with their our bodies and options rigorously organized. Archaeologists suppose they had been chosen as human sacrifices, probably to avert a pending catastrophe like a famine.
Miranda Aldhouse-Inexperienced, a professor emeritus of historical past, archaeology and faith at Cardiff College in the UK and the writer of the book “Bog Bodies Uncovered: Solving Europe’s Ancient Mystery,” stated the seeds of pale persicaria and different traces of threshing waste within the Tollund Man’s final porridge are additional proof that he was sacrificed.
“That reinforces the concept that he both was being shamed by being given one thing disgusting and horrible to eat, or it truly mirrored the truth that society was in a downward spiral the place meals was scarce,” she stated.
The concept that the human sacrifice victims had in some way been “shamed” earlier than loss of life was additionally mirrored of their burials in bogs, as an alternative of the standard burials in tombs and dry graves, she stated.
The preservational properties of bogs had been well-known to individuals within the Iron Age — many archaeological objects from that point, together with items of pricey pottery, had been additionally intentionally deposited there — and it may very well be that the preservation of a bathroom physique was supposed to maintain it from becoming a member of its ancestors. Bogs had been seen as gateways to a different realm.
“If you happen to put a physique within the bathroom, it might not decay — it might keep between the worlds of the dwelling and the lifeless,” Aldhouse-Inexperienced stated.
There’s proof that threshing waste was added to the final meal of one other Iron Age bathroom physique present in Denmark in 1952, that of the Grauballe Man, who can be thought to have been killed as a human sacrifice. Though greater than 100 bathroom our bodies have now been discovered, solely 12 are preserved properly sufficient that their final meals could be analyzed, Nielsen stated, and he or she hopes now to search for additional proof of the ritual observe.
The Tollund Man now occupies a glass case in a particular gallery on the Silkeborg Museum, the place Nielsen can see him nearly every single day.
“You’re standing nose to nose with an individual from the previous,” she stated. “He’s 2,400 years previous — that’s actually superb.”